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Fruits and vegetables good for more than just dessert
By WENDY ELLIMAN
September 8, 2000
JERUSALEMRoots, berries, leaves, resins, twigs and flowers have not only healed
us for thousands of years past, they have also led scientists to many modern
drugs. Foxgloves, willows and poppies may look therapeutically unpromising in
the garden, but digitalis first came from the foxglove, aspirin from willow
bark, and a range of opiates from the poppy.
A botanist from Kibbutz Ketura presents the Dalai Lama with a rare Tibetan fruit
grown on the kibbutz and used in clinical trials by the Natural Medicine Research
Unit at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem.
These are just three in a medicine chest bulging with drugs from natural sources-from
antibiotics (first identified in fungi), through synthetic tranquilizers (resperine
originated in a Nigerian root used to cure moon madness), to the powerful anti-cancer
drugs, vincristine (from the Madagascar periwinkle) and taxol (from Pacific
It's only during the past half-century, in fact, that the old plant-and-water
therapies have been swept away in a tidal wave of modern medical skepticism.
But the pendulum is swinging back with researchers and pharmaceutical companies
today researching traditional remedies with increasing enthusiasm-and often
finding new bases for effective modern drugs.
"Israel has some 3,000 different native plant species, many of them with
long traditions of medicinal use among Bedouin, Druse, Galilee Arabs and Middle
Eastern Jewish communities," says Dr. Sarah Sallon, head of the Natural
Medicine Research Unit (NMRU) at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center
in Jerusalem. "Fragrant star and red doc, for example, are believed by
traditional healers to have a positive effect on cardiac activity. Like 90 percent
of Israel's plants, however, they have never been scientifically tested."
Hadassah's NMRU was founded seven years ago to explore what Sallon believes
is a treasure house of native and folk medicines. "We're working with Hebrew
University's National Herbarium to compile a database of the region's medicinal
plants, along with their disappearing healing traditions," she says. "This
will form a basis for scientific examination of their healing properties."
Much of traditional Bedouin medicine has already been preserved, with the recent
publication of a book by Dr. Aref Abu Rabia, a Bedouin who is an anthropologist
and lecturer in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev's Middle East Studies Department.
Saved as a child by a Bedouin healer, he has spent 25 years studying Bedouin
folk medicine. "For kidney problems alone, there are 15 natural treatments,
utilizing everything from herbs to sheep or goat gallbladder," he says.
Abu Rabia has been invited to speak on the subject at an international conference
on nephrology to be held in Jerusalem in October.
Cranberries not just for Sukkah decorations
Some natural remedies, however, are more appetizing than ungulate organs. Three
simple glasses a day of freshly squeezed orange juice can inhibit the build-up
of fatty plaque that clogs arteries, leading to heart attacks and strokes, discovered
Prof. Elliot Berry of Hadassah's Human Nutrition and Metabolism Department.
His research was the first to show a clear effect of vitamin C on levels of
low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
If you don't care for orange juice, try chewing on licorice root (the real thing
which contains glabridin, not the watered-down candy sold over the counter).
Michael Aviram, professor of Biochemistry & Medicine at the Technion-Israel
Institute of Technology in Haifa, has shown glabridin to be another stalwart
defense against LDL.
Want to fight off infection naturally? The fruit bowl may be a large part of
the answer. Cranberry juice, folk medicine's favorite remedy for urinary tract
infections, received its first scientific validation at the Weizmann Institute
of Science in Rehovot, when molecular biologist Prof. Nathan Sharon showed it
prevents key bacteria from sticking to the urinary tract.
Probably the only effective flu remedy on the market also comes from fruit-in
this case, the black elderberry. Its secrets were unraveled at Hadassah by virologist
Dr. Madeleine Mumcuoglu, and it is now sold worldwide as Sambucol.
Or perhaps you prefer pomegranates. Technion researchers Prof. Ishak Neeman,
Shai Schubert and Dr. Ephraim Lansky have found their high levels of antioxidants
combat atherosclerosis, inflammation and cancer, and as well as slow cellular
Vegetables really ARE good for you
Vegetables have as much to offer as fruit. Garlic has long been known to pack
a powerful punch against infection, and Profs. David Mirelman and Meir Wilcheck
of Weizmann's Biological Chemistry Department have found out why. Its main component,
allicin, disables two groups of enzymes needed by bacteria and viruses to invade
cells, giving it potential as a broad-spectrum anti-microbial drug.
Cabbage, broccoli and radishes seem linked with lower incidence of breast cancer,
according to Prof. Shmuel Yanai of the Technion's Faculty of Food Engineering
& Biotechnology. And epidemiological data show lower incidence of breast
cancer in women who eat a lot of tomatoes, says Dr. Michael Koretz, director
of Ben-Gurion University's Elisheva Eshkol Breast Health Center.
The medicinal properties of seaweed have long been vaunted, especially by coastal
peoples. Prof. Shoshana Arad of Ben-Gurion University's Applied Bio-Sciences
Institute has taken a closer look, extracting a polysaccharide from the cell
walls of red microalgae and developing from it the first natural, effective
topical anti-viral treatment for herpes. In vitro experiments at the Pasteur
Institute in France showed it to perform more effectively than the principal
synthetic medication currently used to treat herpes lesions. Arad is now testing
the anti-inflammatory properties of the polysacharide as a treatment for reducing
friction in joints.
Perhaps the most comprehensive study of natural medicine currently underway
in Israel, however, has nothing to do with local herbs, fruits, vegetables or
corals. It is a scientific examination of Tibetan medicine, the ancient system
of herbal healing whose secrets were, until recently, closely guarded by the
monk-doctors who dispensed it.
"We've made and used our medicines for 2,000 years," says the Dalai
Lama, who has visited Hadassah's Natural Medicine Research Unit twice during
the six years of research. "We know they work. But our recipes are not
understood in the West because they're not in the language of modern science."
Energetically encouraged by Sarah Sallon, Hadassah researchers are working on
the translation. The first remedy they investigated is used in Tibet for "a
condition resulting from excess heat energy," attributed to a surfeit of
yak and other red meat, fats and alcohol. Israeli doctors read this as atherosclerosis
(whose causes include smoking, overweight and elevated levels of cholesterol
and other fatty substances in the blood), and launched a three-year study of
80 elderly patients with painfully clogged arteries in their legs.
Vascular surgeons Prof. Yaakov Berlatzky and Dr. Gidon Be'er have shown not
only that the Tibetan remedy is effective according to objective measurable
parameters, but also that it works because it is a powerful antioxidant that
mops up excess free radicals that contribute to aging, tissue injury and inflammation.
It also seems to interfere with the laying down of harmful fat layers in blood
vessels. Hadassah researchers are now examining whether it may help patients
with heart and fertility problems.
Another study concerns a Tibetan bowel tonic. "Western medicine doesn't
have any concept of bowel tonic," says Sarah Sallon, "but we've recently
completed a study of this medicine in people with irritable bowel syndrome-a
complaint accounting for around 70 percent of gastroenterology consultations.
Our results are very encouraging." So heartened are the Hadassah researchers
that the rare Tibetan herbs needed for the remedies are now being grown in the
Negev at Kibbutz Ketura.
From herbs to pomegranates, from goat gallbladders to corals, a wealth of cures
exist in nature. Increasingly, Israeli researchers are tracking them down and
unraveling their chemical codes in the heartfelt hope of putting better, easier
and faster medicines onto pharmacy shelves.
This is part of a series of monthly feature articles on medical, scientific
and technological developments in Israel being provided as a service to JTA
newspaper clients. The articles have been put together by Hadassah, the Women's
Zionist Organization of America; American Society for Technion; American Committee
for the Weizmann Institute of Science; and American Associates of Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev.
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