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Title: Ends and Means
Author: Rabbi Avi Shafran
Date Sent to Zipple:
Last week, the Dutch Parliament officially legalized what has been common
practice in the Netherlands for many years: the killing of patients by
Their illnesses need not even be terminal for patients to qualify for the
now-legal administration of a lethal poison. And, needless to say, the
procedure is not reversible. But still, there are controls built into the
law: patients must clearly request to die, and their physicians must feel
convinced of their sincerity. Children seeking to have their lives ended,
moreover, can only do so if they are at least 12 years old. And, if under
16, they will need their parents' approval.
Assisted suicide - or collaborative homicide - may not only produce a wave
of nausea but prove the wave of the future. The Johnny Appleseed of medical
euthanasia, Jack Kevorkian (affectionately known to many as "Dr. Death"),
has achieved near folk-hero status among some liberal minded folk. Oregon
already permits doctors to help patients end their lives, though the lethal
drugs must be administered by the patient. And even as grise an eminence as
The New York Times has euphemistically advocated "more humane policies for
easing the last days of the terminally ill" - leaving the rubbery phrases
"humane policies," "last days" and even "terminally ill" for future
We Jews, by contrast, have a clear religious tradition on the matter: even a
moment of human life is invaluable.
To be sure, Judaism teaches that this life is not all there is. Our
tradition is verily predicated on the existence of an afterlife, a "World To
Come," a time of ultimate reward and punishment. But this world alone is
the place for accomplishment. And even a tiny slice of time can be used to
accomplish much. A smile can be shared, a kind word spoken; an apology can
be offered, or a regret confronted; repentance can be achieved or peace
made. Even people who seem unaware of their surroundings or entirely
unconscious may well be functioning inwardly, spiritually, in meaningful
That is the Jewish understanding of life's inherent worth. Modern society,
however, has a very different take.
>From the nearly non-stop portrayals of death and violence in what passes
contemporary "entertainment" to the all-too-real carnage on our cities'
streets, the idea of human life as sacred has become increasingly
unfashionable. In a world where youngsters regularly murder for a car, a
pair of shoes or even just "for fun," or where women routinely decide to
stop an unborn baby's heart to accommodate their own personal or
professional goals, an elderly or infirm person's life just doesn't command
the consequence it once did.
Nor have elements of the "intelligentsia" been hesitant to assist in the
devaluation of human life.
Peter Singer, for example, the famed Professor of Bioethics at Princeton
University's Center for Human Values, has proposed the termination (even
without niceties like consent) of what he calls "miserable beings" - people
whose lives he deems devoid of pleasure. His support of involuntary
euthanasia and infanticide is not likely endorsed by most academicians, but
the expansion of once-fringe ideas is precisely what slippery slopes are all
Professor Singer knows that. Once society jettisons "doctrines about the
sanctity of human life," he predicts, it will be "the refusal to accept
killing that, in some cases, [will be seen as] horrific."
How tragically ironic - no, shameful - that those are the views of a son of
Viennese Jews, refugees of the murder-machine that was the Third Reich. Or
that another 'member of the tribe', Israeli artist, Uri Lifschitz, echoing
the Nazis' own language, has opined that society's time and energy should
"be directed toward improving the race, not nurturing the handicapped."
"Those who are incapable of taking care of their needs," he added, "should
die of hunger because they are useless."
Not mainstream views, perhaps, but they are clearly in the current of public
discourse. And even in contemporary America, where there is still
considerable public aversion for assisted suicide and euthanasia, doctors
report that both occur in American hospitals much more frequently than most
of us realize. One can only imagine what would happen if medical killing
were given the imprimatur of legality here it now enjoys in the Netherlands.
We live in times when the elderly and diseased are rapidly increasing in
number. Modern medicine has made great strides, increasing longevity and
providing cures for many once-fatal illnesses. Add skyrocketing insurance
costs and the resultant fiscal crisis in health care, and life runs the risk
of becoming less a holy, invaluable divine gift than... a commodity.
And every businessman knows how important it is to efficiently turn over
one's stock, to clear out the old and make way for the new.
Societal shifts toward the acceptance of medical murder tend to happen in
stages. As the current shift proceeds in our country, all Americans would
do well to recognize that long falls often begin with small stumbles. And
those of us who are Jews should consider as well that we have a
responsibility not only to live our lives in consonance with Torah but also
to proclaim the truths of our holy tradition to the larger world.
That is what our ancestors did in ancient cultures that celebrated paganism
And what we must unabashedly do in a modern culture that devalues life.
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